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 Post subject: Re: Grounding Techniques
PostPosted: 18 Mar 2019, 16:20 
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Joined: 06 Apr 2009, 10:08
Posts: 1605
Location: US Pacific Northwest
Gab wrote:
Could somebody explain how a safety capacitor can be certified X2 AND Y2 at the same time ? How can it be made to fail open and short at the same time ?
Ok, first things first. Both X and Y class capacitors are "fail open" devices. Neither is designed to "fail short". In general, failing short, as tantalum capacitors are want to do, is a serious problem requiring additional circuit protections.

As to function: Y-class capacitors are designed for EMI suppression via shorting energy to ground. They are placed between a mains lead (line or neutral) and Earth ground. X-class capacitors are designed for EMI suppression via shunting energy around a load. They are placed between the mains leads (line-to-neutral or line-to-line) and do not connect to Earth ground. This is shown in the following illustration:
Attachment:
Screen Shot 2019-03-18 at 2.04.47 PM.png

As to their ratings: X-class capacitors are serious devices with very high peak service voltages between 1.2kV and 4kV. Y-class capacitors have more sedate ratings of <500v. However, both classes must pass relatively high peak test voltages under a low duty factor pulse environment. The following illustration shows the ratings and test conditions for the various classes.
Attachment:
Screen Shot 2019-03-18 at 2.09.36 PM.png

The construction of these components is governed by the standard UL 1414. There is also an international standard IEC 60384-14.

It is my experience that the designations "X class", "X2", "Y2", etc. tend to get thrown around without a lot of precision. In general, substituting an X-class capacitor into a Y type position is no big deal. But putting a Y-class cap in an X type position is something to be avoided. Unless you are trying to comply with some specific safety standard I wouldn't worry about it too much.


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 Post subject: Re: Grounding Techniques
PostPosted: 19 Mar 2019, 11:58 
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Joined: 19 Oct 2018, 15:30
Posts: 132
Location: Montréal, Québec
Thanks fot your very precise answer! It’s much appreciated


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 Post subject: Re: Grounding Techniques
PostPosted: 19 Mar 2019, 18:04 
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Joined: 04 Jun 2008, 20:59
Posts: 4078
Location: Arizona, USA
Hi, Good info and I agree. I do often sub a X2 for Y. I find it simpler to keep just one kind around.

Good listening
Bruce

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